Feb 11, 2019
We knew it was coming, and now it's here: A coup is in progress in Venezuela. In this follow up episode to CD176 (Target Venezuela: Regime Change in Progress), learn additional backstory and details about the recent events in Venezuela, including the proclamation by Juan Guaido that he is now the President of Venezuela and all of the efforts being made by the Trump administration to get this regime change to stick.
Executive Producer: George Melcher
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11:30 Carlos Alfredo Vecchio (via translator): What do we want to do? What is what we are asking the international community to support us with? First, to put an end to the usurpation of power by Nicolas Maduro. We cannot resolve the political and economic and social crisis as long as the dictatorship is in place. And this is something that we have to make clear. That is my priority, is to put an end to that and to help orchestrate international support to put an end to Maduro's dictatorship.
13:30 Carlos Alfredo Vecchio (via translator): Just to make very clear, I mean, from an economic point of view, we believe in an open market, an open economy. We believe in the private sector, we believe in the international and the national sectors, though, often, of course, our main source of revenue is the oil sector. So that would be a key element to recover our country, and we need to open that market. We need to increase our oil production.
39:15 David O’Sullivan: I think we absolutely share the same objective here. The European Union has always believed that the situation in Venezuela is unsustainable. We did not accept the results of the so-called elections last year. We declined collectively to attend the inauguration. And we are wholly supportive of the efforts of the National Assembly and Guaido to restore true democracy and free and fair elections.
48:00 Representative Ed Royce (CA): And a few years ago when the people in Venezuela elected the National Assembly, over two-thirds opposition to Maduro, he doubled down by asking China to bring the ZTE Corporation in and do a social credit system inside Venezuela on the same basis that it's done in China, which means that you now need that card in order to get food or medicine or your pension or your basic services.
48:30 Representative Ed Royce (CA): The fact that this ZTE-type arrangement exists in Venezuela, and now it exists in North Korea, and there's one other country where they have a contract—they're putting it in the Republic of Iran—this represents a new challenge to democracies.
1:15:00 Carlos Alfredo Vecchio: Just to make very clear, I mean, from an economic point of view, we believe in an open market, an open economy. We believe in the private sector, we believe in the international and the national sectors, though, often, of course, our main source of revenue is the oil sector. So that would be a key element to recover our country, and we need to open that market. We need to increase our oil production.
1:23:30 Carlos Alfredo Vecchio: Those agreements that has not been recognized by an international examiner, who has been illegal, we will not recognize illegal agreements. The rest, yes, we will comply with that. And let me send a clear message. For example, the only way that bond holders will not get paid, if Maduro remains in power. Nobody will complain with them. And China has to understand that, and Russia has to understand that.
3:30 Michael Matera: In what is shaping up to be a very unstable and potentially explosive situation in Venezuela, the leading authoritarian nations of the world have stood by Maduro. Russia, Iran, Turkey, China, and Cuba, among a few others, have stated their continued recognition of Maduro. The future of Venezuela is turning more clearly than ever into a proxy struggle between the authoritarian regimes and the democratic nations. Venezuela could easily become the active front on which this struggle is defined.
8:15 Gustavo Tarre: Not only because his knowledge of Venezuela— Madea Benjamin: Not easy because you are here representing a coup. You are totally illegitimate. Nobody elected Juan Guaido, and nobody legitimate appointed you. You are taking Venezuela down the path of a civil war— Unknown Male Speaker: Excuse me. Excuse me, ma’am. Madea Benjamin: How dare you go to a civil war? What kind of patriot are you that allow yourself to be manipulated— Unknown Male Speaker: Out. Get out. Madea Benjamin: —by Donald Trump, John Bolton, and now Elliott Abrams, the ultra hawk. It is a very dangerous situation. We need negotiations, which is why we should be supporting Mexico and Uruguay in their call for negotiations. You don't follow the coup collaborators, like this man right here. Say no to coup. Unknown Male Speaker: See ‘ya. Ambassador— Madea Benjamin: We’re in the 21st century.
1:08:50 William Brownfield: What is the Cuban interest? It's 50,000 barrels of oil a day to an energy-starved nation. What is the Chinese approach? It is very much an economic approach, which is to say there are raw materials of great importance to the Chinese economy that are located in Venezuela, and they have a long-term economic interest in having access to them, driven by economics. Russia is more complicated. They do not need oil. They are, in fact, one of the three largest oil producers in the world right now, who produce more than their national need. It is geostrategic politics. I would offer everyone two thoughts—because I have taken this question from excellent representatives of the media over the last week with some frequency—first, don't listen that closely to the words that you hear from the governments of China or Russia. See if they put another billion or two or three billion investment into Venezuela. Money talks, and I have not seen evidence of that, which suggests that they, too, are pausing and taking a look at what happens. And second, if I could be Russia-specific briefly, I would note, and we all realize this, that over the last 10 years or so, Russia annexed the Crimea, and the Western democracies criticized and protested. Russia created two new republics—one in South Ossetia, the other in North Georgia, I believe—and the Western world protested. Russia at least supported, and I would argue actually infiltrated, large numbers of security personnel into the two easternmost provinces of Ukraine, and the Western world criticized. But at the end of the day, geography and history determined the Crimea is still under Russian control, South Ossetia and North Georgia still exist as independent states, and Russian influence is still quite visible in and whatever the other province is called. All right. That is geographic reality. We are now in the Western Hemisphere. If Brazil and Colombia and Argentina and Canada and the United States take a position, those same geographic realities will, in fact, move in the other direction. Of course we must listen to the Russian and Chinese governments—they are two of perhaps the three most important governments in the world—but we're entitled to use our brains as we calculate what they are saying and how we respond to it.
1:16:30 William Brownfield: What if Maduro hangs on yet once again, which by the way, ladies and gentlemen, is not inconceivable; it's happened before. We had not quite this much of a conversation, but in 2017 some sensed that things might be happening, and they did not happen. Is it possible again? Of course, it is. That is why we talk about a strategy, an international community strategy with two elements: one element being focused on the Maduro de _____(00:35) esta, the removal of that government, and that strategic component is not eliminated until someone new has moved into Miraflores Palace; and the second, related but separate element of planning for the day after.
1:11:00 Senator Marco Rubio (FL): We know they have openly and repeatedly, at least Maduro has, invited the Russians and Putin to establish either a rotational or a permanent presence somewhere in Venezuela, thereby creating a Russian military presence in the Western Hemisphere. In fact, they flew, about three weeks ago or a month ago, two Russian nuclear-capable bombers into the Caribbean Sea.
1:12:15 Senator Marco Rubio (FL): Is it not in the national interest of the United States of America that the Maduro regime fall and be replaced by a democratic and more responsible government?
1:15:15 Lieutenant General Robert Ashley: The reference you made to the Tu-160 Blackjacks that flew those strategic bombers, third iteration of that—first time was in '08, and then '14, and we've seen it again. As far as presence on the ground, we can talk a little bit more detail in a closed session about where we see Russia and China going with that greater instability. But in the open press, what you've seen thus far really is nothing more than just vocal support that's coming out of Moscow and that's coming out of China as well, but there is relationship there. From the military standpoint in the way of training, lots of Venezuelan officers go to Russia for training, and there's a reciprocal relationship for equipping them as well.
1:16:00 Senator Angus King (ME): In light of Senator Rubio's comments, I'd just like to note of caution, he listed refugee flows, human rights abuses, and corruption. There are lots of countries in the world that meet that description, and our right or responsibility to generate regime change in a situation like that, I think, is a slippery slope. And I have some real caution about what our vital interests are and whether it's our right or responsibility to take action to try to change the government of another sovereign country. That same description would have led us into a much more active involvement in Syria, for example, five or six years ago, other parts of the country. I just wanted to note that.
John Bolton - National Security Advisor
1:26 John Bolton: As you know, on January the 23rd, President Trump officially recognized the president of the Venezuela National Assembly, Juan Guaido, as the interim president of Venezuela. Venezuela's National Assembly invoked Article 233 of the country's constitution to declare Nicolas Maduro illegitimate. This action was a statement that the people of Venezuela have had enough of oppression, corruption, and economic hardship. Since then, 21 other governments in the region and across the world have joined the United States in recognizing Guaido as Venezuela's interim president.
3:53 John Bolton: I reiterate that the United States will hold Venezuelan security forces responsible for the safety of all U.S. diplomatic personnel, the National Assembly, and President Guido. Any violence against these groups would signify a grave assault on the rule of law and will be met with a significant response.
4:24 Steven Mnuchin: Today Treasury took action against Venezuela’s state-owned oil company, PDVSA, to help prevent the further diversion of Venezuela’s assets by former President Maduro.
5:21 Steven Mnuchin: The path to sanctions relief for PDVSA is through the expeditious transfer of control to the interim president or a subsequent democratically elected government who is committed to taking concrete and meaningful actions to combat corruption.
5:40 Steven Mnuchin: Today OFAC also issued a number of general licenses that authorize certain transactions and activities with PDVSA for limited periods of time to minimize any immediate disruptions and support of ongoing humanitarian efforts.
6:00 Steven Mnuchin: Citgo assets in the United States will be able to continue to operate provided that any funds that would otherwise go to PDVSA instead will go into a blocked account in the United States.
6:10 Steven Mnuchin: Refineries in the United States have already been taking steps to reduce the reliance on imports from Venezuela. Those imports have fallen substantially in recent months. We have also issued general licenses to ensure that certain European and Caribbean countries can make an orderly transition.
6:20 Steven Mnuchin: We continue to call on all of our allies and partners to join the United States in recognizing Interim President Guaido in blocking Maduro from being able to access PDVSA funds.
7:10 Reporter: Is there any circumstance under which American forces would get involved? John Bolton: Well, the president has made it very clear on this matter that all options are on the table.
7:43 Steven Mnuchin: But effective immediately, any purchases of Venezuelan oil by U.S. entities, money will have to go into blocked accounts. Now, I've been in touch with many of the refineries. There is a significant amount of oil that's at sea that's already been paid for. That oil will continue to come to the United States. If the people in Venezuela want to continue to sell us oil, as long as that money goes into blocked accounts, we'll continue to take it. Otherwise, we will not be buying it. And again, we have issued general licenses, so the refineries in the United States can continue to operate.
9:06 Steven Mnuchin: The purpose of sanctions is to change behavior. So when there is a recognition that PDVSA is the property of the rightful rulers, the rightful leaders, the president, then, indeed, that money will be available to Guaido.
9:52 John Bolton: And the authoritarian regime of Chavez and Maduro has allowed penetration by adversaries of the United States, not least of which is Cuba. Some call the country now Cubazuela, reflecting the grip that Cuba’s military and security forces have on the Maduro regime. We think that’s a strategic significant threat to the United States, and there are others as well, including Iran’s interest in Venezuelan’s uranium deposits.
15:56 Steven Mnuchin: We're dealing with Venezuelan oil that is a rather modest part of our overall supply. Again, we're a net exporter of energy. We are particularly concerned that there were a handful of refineries that had a dependence on Venezuelan oil. I think they read the tea leaves. They reduced that dependence significantly along the way. Most of them have in the neighborhood of 10% or less of their dependent on Venezuelan oil. So, I don't expect that people will see an impact on the gas pumps.
17:10 Steven Mnuchin: I’m sure many of our friends in the Middle East will be happy to make up the supply as we push down Venezuela’s supply.
2:20 Mike Pompeo: Let’s be crystal clear: The foreign power meddling in Venezuela today is Cuba. Cuba has directly made matters worse and the United States and our partners are the true friends of the Venezuelan people.
16:40 Mike Pompeo: Such scenes of misery are now the norm in Venezuela, where millions of children are suffering from malnutrition and starvation, thanks to a socialist experiment that caused the economy to collapse.
20:24 Mike Pompeo: And now it’s time for every other nation to pick a side. No more delays. No more games. Either you stand with the forces of freedom or you’re in league with Maduro and his mayhem... But no regime has done more to sustain the nightmarish condition of the Venezuelan people than the regime in Havana. For years, Cuban security and intelligence thugs, invited into Venezuela by Maduro himself and those around him, have sustained this illegitimate rule. They have trained Maduro’s security and intelligence henchmen in Cuba’s own worst practices. Cuba’s interior ministry even provides former President Maduro’s personal security... Some countries have publicly taken former President Maduro’s side. China, Russia, Syria, and Iran are just four of them. Just this morning, we tried to find a way for this council to speak in one voice in support of the Venezuelan people and our democratic ideals through a presidential statement not this council. But our Russian and Chinese colleagues refused to let this move forward. It’s not a surprise that those that rule without democracy in their own countries are trying to prop up Maduro while he is in dire straights.
00:10 Jorge Arreaza: So 2002 is a direct precedent to what is happening. They were behind the coup d’etat. They weren’t as much in the vanguard or in advance as this time. They recognized Carmona, the dictator for the 72 hours that it lasted... It was on the 22nd, where Vice President Pence basically in a tweet gave a green light for a coup d’etat in Venezuela. As Under Secretary General said the interim President is self proclaimed. There was no ceremony. It was self proclamation by a member of Parliament at a public rally, at a peaceful public rally, one of many that there have been over the past years... If one of you can tell me in which article and which provision of the United Nations charter you can find the legal basis for self proclamation who wasn’t elected by anyone as President of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, then we can open a discussion on the legal aspects, but I don’t think that will happen... At last we have a chance to speak. We have a written text but before that I wanted to share some thoughts with you. Indeed, we can even thank Mr. Mike Pompeo because in the face of failure at the Organization of American States on the 24th of January, they didn’t have enough weight to impose a resolution, well they convened a meeting of the Security Council. In fact, we - President Maduro - thought of appealing to this body not only to debate the case of Venezuela but rather the blatant and gross intervention, and mechanisms of interference by the United States in our country. In this case, the United States is not behind the coup d’etat, it is in advance in the vanguard of the coup d’etat. It is dictating the orders not only to the Venezuelan opposition but also to the satellite governments in the region, and it seems it Europe and in other parts of the world.
31:47 Elliot Abrams: I can not respond to every attack that was made on every country here. The insults that were made by calling many countries here “satellites”. In fact, it was interesting that every single country that was attacked - or criticized - was a democracy. Every single one that you criticized was a democracy... Today there is a satellite present here and it is Venezuela, which is unfortunately has become a satellite of Cuba and Russia... The regime is hiding behind, and it’s spokesman is hiding behind, the laws and constitution of Venezuela.
21:53 Shannon O’Neil: Multilateral initiatives are perhaps more important and potentially more fruitful as a means to influence Venezuela. This will mean working behind the scenes to galvanize opposition and condemnation for the Maduro regime. This’ll be more effective than U.S. efforts alone as it will be much harder for the Venezuelan government to dismiss the criticisms and the actions of its South American neighbors as imperialist overreach. And such a coalition is much more possible today than in any time in the recent past, due both to the accelerating repression and the breaking of the last democratic norms in Venezuela, and due to the very different stances of South America’s recently elected leaders, particularly in Peru, in Brazil, and in Argentina.
41:12 Senator Bob Menendez: I’m pleased to have led a bipartisan and bicameral letter of my colleagues, urging the administration to take actions against the administration, and I look forward for a continuing engagement. But I hope we can work together to hold human-rights violators and drug traffickers, send a clear message, “If you’re going to violate rights of others inside of Venezuela, know that you’re next. Know that you’re next.” And while the Maduro regime may have sanctioned me and forbidden my entry into Venezuela, it will not stop me from pursuing this issue.
Article: How Washington funded the counterrevolution in Venezuela by Tim Gill and Rebecca Hansen, The Nation, February 8, 2019.
Statement: Pelosi statement on the situation in Venezuela, Nancy Pelosi, Speaker of the House, February 8, 2019.
Article: Venezuela says plan from Miami delivered weapons for use by enemies of Maduro by Tim Johnson, McClatchy DC, February 7, 2019.
Article: Senators fail to reach deal on recognizing Venezuela's Guaido, aide says by Daniel Flatley, Bloomberg, February 7, 2019.
Article: Bipartisan Venezuela legislation fizzles over use of military force by Leigh Ann Caldwell and Josh Lederman, NBC News, February 6, 2019.
Article: Spotify podcast acquisitions will bring a lot of money into tiny industry by Taylor Telford, The Washington Post, February 6, 2019.
Article: Spotify technology S.A. announces financial results for fourth quarter 2018, Spotify Investors, February 6, 2019.
Article: Trump's Venezuela envoy to testify to U.S. House panel amid crisis by Patricia Zengerle and Arshad Mohammed, Reuters, February 6, 2019.
Article: Russia starts to worry Maduro's grip is slipping in Venezuela, The Moscow Times, February 6, 2019.
Article: French, German farmers destroy crops after GMOs found in BAyer seeds by Sybille de La Hamaide, Reuters, February 6, 2019.
Article: Venezuela opposition will name new Citgo board this week: WSJ, Reuters, February 6, 2019.
Article: How the neocons captured Donald Trump by Brian D'Haeseleer, The Washington Post, February 5, 2019.
Article: Lima group warns against Venezuela military intervention, France 24, February 5, 2019.
Article: Maduro's allies: Who backs the Venezuelan regime? by Rocio Cara Labrador, Council on Foreign Relations, February 5, 2019.
Article: What does it mean for the United States to recognize Juan Guaido as Venezuela's President? by Scott R. Anderson, Lawfare, February 1, 2019.
Article: Venezuela opposition leader outlines plan to revive nation by Ryan Dube and Kejal Vyas, The Wall Street Journal, January 31, 2019.
Article: Elliott Abrams, Trump's pick to bring "democracy" to Venezuela, has spent his life crushing democracy by John Schwarz, The Intercept, January 30, 2019.
Article: U.S. push to oust Venezuela's Maduro marks first shot in plan to reshape Latin America by Jessica Donati, Vivian Salama, and Ian Talley, The Wall Street Journal, January 30, 2019.
Article: The real reason why those foreign powers are so interested in Venezuela by Melik Kaylan, Forbes, January 29, 2019.
Article: How Citgo, a U.S. oil company, became Venezuela's lifeline by Adam Taylor, The Washington Post, January 29, 2019.
Article: US diplomat convicted over Iran-Contra appointed special envoy for Venezuela by Julian Borger, The Guardian, January 26, 2019.
Tweet: America stands by the people of #Venezuela... Nancy Pelosi, Twitter, January 24, 2019.
Article: Russia warns U.S. not to intervene in Venezuela as military backs Maduro by Ana Vanessa Herrero and Neil MacFarquhar, The New York Times, January 24, 2019.
Tweet: The citizens of Venezuela have suffered for too long at... Donald J. Trump, January 23, 2019.
Tweet: Today @POTUS announced the U.S. officially recognizes Juan Guaido as... Vice President Mike Pence, January 23, 2019.
Tweet: .@POTUS & the US stand w/ the Venezuelan peopl eas they seek to regain their liberty from... Vice President Mike Pence, January 22, 2019.
Article: Brazil's Bolsonaro pledges action to 'restore democracy' in Venezuela, Reuters, January 17, 2019.
Article: Venezuela is in crisis. So how did Maduro secure a second term? by Ana Vanessa Herrero and Megan Specia, The New York Times, January 10, 2019.
Article: Lima group says it won't recognize Maduro's new term as president of Venezuela by Jim Wyss, Miami Herald, January 4, 2019.
Article: Trump taps ex-Boeing executive Patrick Shanahan as acting Defense Secretary by Darko Janjevic, DW, December 23, 2018.
Article: Russia sends 2 nuclear-capable bombers to Venezuela by Vladimir Isachenkov, Navy Times, December 10, 2018.
Article: Russia signs $6 billion investment deals with Venezuela, Maduro says, The Moscow Times, December 7, 2018.
Press Release: Rubio, Van Hollen urge administration to investigate ZTE business with Venezuelan government, Marco Rubio Newsroom, November 28, 2018.
Article: How ZTE helps Venezuela create China-style social control by Angus Berwick, Reuters, November 14, 2018.
Article: Trump administration tightens sanctions gains Cuba, Venezuela by Courtney McBride, The Wall Street Journal, November 1, 2018.
Article: Canada's Rusoro Mining reaches $1.3B deal with Venezuela by Cecilia Jamasmie, Mining.com, October 12, 2018.
Article: Rusoro Mining has received a settlement proposal from the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, Rusoro Mining News, October 11, 2018.
Article: Venezuela hands China more oil peresence, but no mention of new funds by Ben Blanchard and Alexandra Ulmer, Reuters, September 14, 2018.
Article: Trump administration discussed coup plans with rebel Venezuelan officers by Ernesto Londono and Nicholas Casey, The New York Times, September 8, 2018.
Article: A record-breaking market doesn't matter to most Americans by Helaine Olen, The Washington Post, August 22, 2018.
Article: The politics of food in Venezuela by Ana Felicien, Christina Schiavoni, and Liccia Romero, Monthly Review, June 1, 2018.html) by William Neuman and Nicholas Casey, The New York Times, May 20, 2018.
Article: Regional leaders call on Venezuela to suspend 'illegitimate' election by Eli Meixler, Time, May 15, 2018.
Article: [Venezuela election won by Maduro amid widespread disillusionment](https://www.nytimes.com/2018/05/20/world/americas/venezuela-election.
Article: US media ignore - and applaud - economic war on Venezuela by Gregory Shupak, Common Dreams, March 22, 2018.
Article: Rusoro mining wins key U.S. court ruling confirming arbitration award, Rusoro Mining News, March 14, 2018.
Article: Venezuela's Maduro calls for 'mega-election' that could cement his power by Rachelle Krygier, The Washington Post, February 22, 2018.
Article: Venezuela opposition will boycott election, and Maduro tightens his hold by Ana Vanessa Herrero and Kirk Semple, The New York Times, February 21, 2018.
Article: Venezuela launches virtual currency, hoping to resuscitate economy by Kirk Semple and Nathaniel Popper, The New York Times, February 20, 2018.
Tweet: The world would support the Armed Forces in #Venezuela if they decide to... Marco Rubio, February 9, 2018.
Article: Few challengers in sight, Venezuela sets April 22 for presidential vote by Nicholas Casey, The New York Times, February 7, 2018.
Briefing: Background briefing on the Secretary's travel to Austin, Texas; Mexico City, Mexico; San Carlos Bariloche, Argentina; Buenos Aires, Argentina; Lima, Peru; Bogota, Colombia; and Kingston, Jamaica, Senior State Department Officials, U.S. Department of State, January 29, 2018.
Article: Venezuela calls for early elections, and Maduro aims to retain control by Kirk Semple, The New York Times, January 23, 2018.
Article: Tired of regional critics, Venezuela looks to Russia and China by Ernesto Londono, The New York Times, December 27, 2017.
Article: Venezuela puts up roadblock for opposition in next presidential vote by Ana Vanessa Herrero, The New York Times, December 20, 2017.
Article: As Venezuela opposition shuns vote, leader's party tightens grip on power by Kirk Semple, The New York Times, December 10, 2017.
Article: Putin extends lifeline to cash-strapped Venezuela by Patrick Gillespie, CNN Business, November 15, 2017.
Article: Venezuela's two legislatures duel, but only one has ammunition by Kirk Semple, The New York Times, November 3, 2017.
Advisory: Reports from financial institutions are critical to stopping, deterring, and preventing the proceeds tied to suspected Venezuelan public corruption from moving through the U.S. financial system, Financial Crimes Enforcement Network, September 20, 2017.
Article: White House raises pressure on Venezuela with new financial sanctions by Clifford Krauss, The New York Times, August 25, 2017.
Article: Venezuela's new, powerful assembly takes over legislature's duties by Nicholas Casey, The New York Times, August 18, 2017.
Report: Vladimir's Venezuela - leveraging loans to Caracas, Moscow snaps up oil assets by Marianna Parraga and Alexandra Ulmer, Reuters, August 11, 2017.
Article: Trump says military is 'locked and loaded' and North Korea will 'regret' threats by Peter Baker, The New York Times, August 11, 2017.
Article: Venezuela's new assembly members share a goal: Stifle dissent by Nicholas Casey and Ana Vanessa Herrero, The New York Times, August 3, 2017.
Article: Venezuela vote marred by violence, including candidate's death by Nicholas Casey, Patricia Torres, and Ana Vanessa Herrero, The New York Times, July 30, 2017.
Article: Goldman buys $2.8 billion worth of Venezuelan bonds, and an uproar begins by Landon Thomas Jr., The New York Times, May 30, 2017.
Article: Nicolas Maduro, Venezuela President, calls for a rewrite of the constitution by Nicholas Casey, The New York Times, May 1, 2017.
Article: Venezuela says it will leave pro-democracy organization by Nicholas Casey, The New York Times, April 26, 2017.
Article: Crisis-ridden Venezuela gave $500k to Trump inauguration by Patrick Gillespie and Flora Charner, CNN Money, April 20, 2017.
Article: Venezuelan court revises ruling that nullified legislature by Nicholas Casey and Patricia Torres, The New York Times, April 1, 2017.
Article: As criticism mounts, Venezuela asks high court revisit power grab by Nicholas Casey, The New York Times, March 31, 2017.
Article: Venezuela muzzles legislature, moving closer to one-man rule by Nicholas Casey and Patricia Torres, The New York Times, March 30, 2017.
Article: An actual American war criminal may become our second-ranking diplomat by Eric Alterman, The Nation, February 2, 2017.
Article: What happened when Venezuela outlawed its own currency by Jeremy Ashkenas and Quoctrung Bui, The New York Times, December 30, 2016.
Article: Venezuela: three opposition lawmakers resign in concession to Maduro, Reuters, November 15, 2016.
Article: Venezuelan lawmakers vote to put President Nicolas Maduro on trial by Ana Vanessa Herrero and Elisabeth Malkin, The New York Times, October 25, 2016.
Article: Venezuelan electoral panel halts effort to recall President Nicolas Maduro by Patricia Torres and Elisabeth Malkin, The New York Times, October 21 2016.
Article: Venezuela's supreme court consolidates Nicolas Maduro's power by Elisabeth Malkin and Nicholas Casey, The New York Times, October 12, 2016.
Article: O.A.S. issues rebuke to Venezuela citing threats to democracy by Nicholas Casey, The New York Times, May 31, 2016.
Article: Venezuela panel clears the way for a process to oust Nicolas Maduro by Patricia Torres and Nicholas Casey, The New York Times, April 26, 2016.
Article: Venezuela's court deals another blow to opposition lawmakers by Nicholas Casey, The New York Times, April 12, 2016.
Article: In power struggle, Venezuela's high court declares parliament in contempt by Mery Mogollon and Chris Kraul, Los Angeles Times, January 11, 2016.
Article: Venezuela: Court held lawmakers in contempt by Nicholas Casey, The New York Times, January 11, 2016.
Article: Venezuela opposition takes reins of assembly as tensions rise by William Neuman and Nicholas Casey, The New York Times, January 5, 2016.
Article: 9 opposition candidates barred from Venezuela's December ballot by William Neuman, The New York Times, August 23, 2015.
Article: Venezuelan court rejects challenge to Presidential election results by William Neuman, The New York Times, August 7, 2013.
Article: Kerry encourages Venezuela recount by William Neuman, The New York Times, April 17, 2013.
Report: Study mission of the Carter Center in 2013 Presidential elections in Venezuela, The Carter Center, April 14, 2013.
Article: Venezuela coup linked to Bush team by Ed Vulliamy, The Guardian, April 21, 2002.
Article: Uprising in Venezuela: The government; Venezuela's chief forced to resign; civilian installed by Juan Forero, The New York Times, April 13, 2002.
Article: 12 years of tortured truth on El Salvador by Guy Gugliotta and Douglas Farrah, The Washington Post, March 21, 1993.
Article: Bush pardons Weinberger, 5 others in Iran-Contra;Act called cover-up by Robert Jackson and Ronald J. Ostrow, The Los Angeles Times, December 25, 1992.
Article: Elliot Abrams admits his guild on 2 counts in Contra cover-up by David Johnston, The New York Times, October 8, 1991.
Article: Aide says U.S. planes carried contra arms, Archives, The New York Times, August 15, 1987.
National Endowment for Democracy: Elliott Abrams, Council on Foreign Relations
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